Follow-up question to ChatGPT 4.0
Which of the organizational models have specific roles defined and what are they?

ChatGPT 4.0 Answer
Among the organizational models discussed, several define specific roles as part of their methodology to facilitate collaboration, decision-making, and the execution of tasks. Here are the models with specific roles defined and a brief description of those roles:


  • Lead Link: Responsible for assigning roles within the circle and defining priorities and strategies.
  • Rep Link: Represents the interests of circle members in the broader organization’s governance.
  • Facilitator: Guides the circle’s governance meetings and ensures the Holacracy process is followed.
  • Secretary: Records meeting outcomes and maintains the circle’s records.

Scrum (within Agile Methodology)

  • Product Owner: Responsible for defining the product vision, managing the product backlog, and ensuring the team delivers value to the business.
  • Scrum Master: Facilitates Scrum processes, helps remove impediments, and ensures the team is productive.
  • Development Team: Cross-functional team members who do the work of delivering the product increment during the sprint.


While sociocracy focuses more on the structure of decision-making rather than specific job titles, it does define roles within its governance model, such as:

  • Circle Member: Individuals who are part of a self-governing circle.
  • Facilitator: Helps guide the circle’s decision-making process.
  • Secretary: Handles administrative tasks for the circle.
  • Delegate: Represents the circle in decisions made at a higher organizational level.

Agile Methodology
Agile does not prescribe specific roles across all its implementations but instead focuses on roles suitable for managing and performing work in small, iterative cycles. In frameworks like Scrum and Kanban, which fall under the Agile umbrella, specific roles like Product Owner and Scrum Master are defined.

General Observations
Teal Organizations, Lean Startup, Open Space Technology (OST), and Flat Organizations focus less on predefined roles and more on principles such as self-management, emergent leadership, and organic collaboration. These models advocate for flexibility in how roles and responsibilities are assumed, often changing based on the project, the team’s needs, and individual strengths and interests.

Humanocracy and Beta Codex (Beyond Budgeting) also do not prescribe specific roles. Instead, they focus on principles that guide organizational design and behavior, such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose, encouraging a departure from traditional management roles towards more fluid and dynamic role definitions based on work and context.

In models with defined roles, such as Holacracy and Scrum, the roles are part of a framework designed to enable efficient workflow, clear accountability, and effective decision-making within the organization’s chosen structure.